The total area of the Black Sea is above 482 thousands square km and the maximum depth reaches 2245 m, average — 1271 m.
On the shores of the Black Sea there are many lemans including Dnistrovskyy (40 km long, 5 to 10 km wide), Dniprovskyy (60 km long and 5 to 20 km wide) and others. There are nearly 20 various islands in the Black Sea and many rock islands. The largest bays include Dzharylgatska, Karkinitska, Kalamitska, Feodosivska. The Black Sea is connected to the Azov sea through the Kerchenska gulf (about 4 m deep) and to the Mediterranean though the Bosfor and Dardanelli gulfs and the Marble sea.
The temperatures in the upper layer of Black Sea water reach 28... 30°C and more in summer and drop to -6... -8°C in winter. In autumn and winter there are storms influenced by cold northeast winds. The wave height reaches 5–6 m.
The flora of the Black sea (665 kinds) is represented mostly by seaweed and the fauna — by mostly fish (180 kinds) that are important industrially, and dolphins. At the shores various birds nest. There are ports like Odesa, Illichivsk, Pivdennyy, Sevastopol, Yalta, Feodosiya, Kerch, Skadovsk, Mykolaiv, Kherson. Some lemans, like Kuyalnytskyy and Khadjybeyskyy have medicinal mud resorts.
The total area of Azov sea is 39,1 thousands square km, maximum depth — 14 m, average — 8–10 m. Majority of the 2686 km long shoreline is in Ukraine and the largest bays include Temnutska and Taganrozska.
There are almost 73 thousand rivers and streams in Ukraine. 125 rivers have length of over 100 km, almost 4 thousands — over 10 km. The largest river systems are those of Dnipro, Dunai, Dnister, Pivdennyy Bug and Siverskyy Donets. The most dense river system exists in the Ukrainian Carpathians and the least dense — in the southern regions.
Dnipro is the third largest river in Europe, beginning on the Valday highland and running into the Black Sea. It’s length within Ukraine is 981 km and the whole length — 2201 km and numerous streams and smaller rivers run into it forming a large and complicated system. There are numerous water storage systems and canals built on and around it.
Dunai is the largest river in Europe head watered in the east of the Black Forest and running into the Black Sea. Its length within Ukraine is 174 km and it forms numerous lakes (including Yalpug, Kugurluy, Kagul and others). Many rivers and streams run into it, largest being Prut and Tysa that both start in the Ukrainian Carpathians. Main Ukrainian ports are Rem, Ismail, Kilia, Vylkove.
Dnister starts in the Ukrainian Carpathians one thousand meters high and runs into the Dnistrovskyy leman. It’s length within Ukraine is 705 km, general length — 1362 km. The largest rivers running into it include Bystrytsia, Siret, Smotrych and others.
Pivdennyy Bug starts on the Podilska highland and runs into the Bugskyy leman of the Black Sea. It is 806 km long and the largest rivers running into it include Symukha, Ingul, Kodyma and others. A few small hydroelectric stations are built on the river.
Siverskyy Donets is the largest river in the eastern Ukaine that starts on the Serednorosiyska highland and is 672 km long within Ukraine. The main rivers running into it include Oskil, Lugan, Krasna and Aidar.
In Ukraine there are nearly 20 thousands lakes, 43 of them with area of more than 10 square km. The largest lakes include Sasyk (210 square km), Yalpug (149), Katalbuh (68), Kytay (60), and Svitiaz (24,4). A popular tourist destination is the mountain Lake Synevyr (7 square km).
Shatskyy group includes over 30 lakes that together with the surrounding landscape form Shatskyy natural National Park where sports competitions are held and recreational zones created.
Natural Medicinal and Therapeutic Waters
Ukraine is rich in various mineral waters that have medicinal qualities of various kinds. Ukrainian Carpathians and Zakarpattia boast such waters as Poliana Kvasova and Svaliava (sanitoriums «Verhovyna», «Shayan», «Poliana» and others), Podilliya — sulfide waters (resorts «Shklo», «Cherche» and others).
Many other regions of Ukraine, as the well as the Crimean peninsula, have sanatoriums and resorts that offer treatments with various medicinal mineral waters.